AT WORK :
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT DF THE INTERIOR
OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS <• - WASHINGTON, D.C.
l /£1/-x . _.-f
INDJANS AT f OU
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF JULY 1938
Volume V Number 11
Editorial John Collier 1
Four Years Of Indian Reorganization D'Arcy McNickle 4
First Voluntary Assignment Of Allotted Land To
Tribe Made At Quinaielt, Washington Walter V. Woehlke 12
Recent Changes Of Assignment 12
Winnebago Tribal Council Members Learn Local
School Problems First-Hand 13
Rosebud Sioux Council Drafts Tax Measure 13
Salt Roads R. L. Whitcomb 15
Summary Of Indian Service Appropriations For
Reorganization News 17
Lee Muck Becomes Director Of Forests For Interior 17
CCC-ID Powder School, Fort Apache, Arizona Erik W. Allstrom 19
Tribal Council Sends Encouraging Report On
Lower Brule Affairs 20
The Liquor Question As It Affects Indians 22
District Camp Supervisor Receives Aquatic In-
structor's Certificate John P. Watson 26
Crow Fair Dates Set For August 29 - September 2 26
Old Array And Marine Corps Clothing Put To Good
The American Indian Sign Language John P. Harrington 23
Montana Indian Girl Wins Essay Prize Mrs . Julia Schutz 33
Washington Office Visitors 33
Southwestern Reservations Prepare For Fire
Season DeWayne Kreager 35
Zuni The Center 37
Indians In The News 42
Navajo Forest Fire Control School Held At Fort
Defiance , Ari zona, May 2-6 DeWayne Kreager 44
Cover Page 44
From CCC-ID Reports 45
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VOLUME 3£ • - JULY 1938 - - NUMBER 11
Going toward Guatemala, with its million and a quarter
Indians, and Mexico to the North with its seven or eight millions.
Paralelling for three days and nights one small segment of that
vast coastline of the United States which encloses, among its hun-
dred and thirty million people, a third of a million or less of In-
dians. Crossing that track where Hudson sailed, and William Perm
and John Smith and Oglethorpe, and where Cortez sailed, and all who
came after him into the hitter and splendid Spanish past of North
America. Crossing, re-crossing and breasting the Gulf Stream which
carries North Europe's fate. On the Ocean with its boundlessness
of silent, unnoted events, hardly changing in a hundred million
years; and now with mesas, buttes and plinths of the Southwestern
desert, motionless, gathering as clouds above its south and its
west. Yucatan, sixty miles west, with its dead Indian civilization
jungle-hidden, mysterious and forever lost. So I come to try to
face the o_uestion that has been whispering itself for two days:
What is there - is there anything - that makes the In-
dians' effort (in the United States), and our governmental effort
with the Indians worthwhile? What more, that is, than our personal
Careers whose importance is nothing, and more than that better re-
alization of even one human possibility which has its absolute im-
portance though it take place outside the stream of history and in
a social void; and what more than the feeling of importance that
enters into every activity excitement, particularly every struggle.
What, lying outside the "illusion of the near?"
( Note ; This editorial was written by Commissioner Collier while en
route to Guatemala for a brief vacation.)
There comes to thought first, simply the importance of
faithfully executing a public trust. In the Indians' case the or-
igin and the continuing motive of the trust are significant. The
origin blended conquest, public convenience and conscience. The
continuing motive surely is something else than mere inertia and
the entanglements of contract and of white advantage. The great
public looks upon and supports the government's Indian work as an
effort to do historical justice, to protect the weak, and to keep
alive values which are deep in the white man's own consciousness.
No other country has brought, in the absence of necessity political
or economic, so much of what may be called idealism, conscientious-
ness or romanticism to its work for its Indians: perhaps, not for
any minority or dependent group anywhere in the world. This, not
only now, but across many years, and without regard to the question
of whether it has done harm or good.
Then there has come, quite of recent years, the effort to
bring intelligence - empiricism and invention - to the correction
and support of good intentions; and so the trust has become an in-
strument - at least, an intended and possible instrument - of dis-
covery. Discovery for the sake of guiding action; and discovery
through action. And here enter certain postulates, or policies,
which tend to give universal interest to the empirical and inven-
tive effort, (l) That the Indians possess many native strengths
and values, which must be made into the central factor in Indian
service dynamics- They must be sought for, understood, given im-
portance, made determinants of government action, and "placed" in
the living social effort of the Indians. (2) That a group self-
activity, genuinely vested with power, must become the main element
in Indian administration. (3) Yet, that the Federal responsibility
must be conserved, being shifted from authority to cooperation.
(4) That to the group self-activity, and through the Federal serv-
ice, there shall be brought to the Indians all the kinds of aid,
from whatever source, that sxe needed and can be assimilated. (5)
That economic betterment must be paramount, but in the main must
be sought within the policy-framework above sketched; that the eco-
nomic betterment must be sought through a planned use of resources,
in which all technological helps will be called upon but whose ex-
ecution shall be on a tribal, or an "area-project" or regional ba-
sis, through the Indians as organized bodies and informed, consent-
ing and acting bodies, and with the government's non-technical ad-
ministrators, teachers, and so forth, serving as the principal me-
diators and agents of contact. The above from (l) to (5) inclusive,
have laid upon all divisions of Indian service a requirement novel
and significant, of adapting themselves, integrating themselves to
a total local human situation and effort within which exist or are
being imported elements that are profound - from ancestral Indian
life or simply from the life of man when he copes with his fate in
groups, and from white life as soon as the teacher, administrator,
or missionary of religion or of culture makes a thoughtful effort
to bring to an archaic society the knowledge, processes end values
which it needs - and only those which it needs, and in the way it
can take them - from the great society. This requirement has
hrought to its focus a problem of personnel finding and personnel
training which well may be the richest in the whole field of gov-
ernment; also that problem is imposed within rigidities of inherited
organization, of statute, of budget, of civil service, which make
accomplishment trebly difficult but also which, if nevertheless
there be accomplishment, (a) insure its perpetuation through mere
inertia and (b) endow it with significance and productiveness for
the whole field of government.
The above is not merely fact which might be, importance
which might be. Every item of it exists objectively and is a dom-
inant fact somewhere in the Indian field. It exists more richly in
some areas than in others, and opportunities for immediately, man-
ifestly important achievement in one or another of the connected
aspects are richer in some areas than in others. However, analysis
shows that the factor of leadership really is more important than
the factor of opportunity. I think of many examples but omit them
The proposition stands: within the framework sketched in
paragraph three of this writing, every Indian area can yield, and
nearly all are yielding in some measure, experience of an importance
both specific and universal.
As I write this page, a rainstorm outfolds darkly from
southeastward toward Cuba. The wind coming with it heaps breakers
on top of the multi-directioned swell. The vast, living ocean
flashes to a darker glory In numbers, in quantity however meas-
ured, our Indians are almost nothing; in the welter of the world
today we workers with Indians are less than one of the thousand
ripples on one of these waves. Yet the importance is there, it is
real, it does reach far; possibly it can enter more productively
into the national and the world future than many endeavors dealing
with more massive things. This depends on ourselves, largely. At
least, we sre not sequestrated, in the Indian work, but are (if we
will pay attention) connected through it with great, permanent
world-trends , world-questions, world-needs.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
FOUR YflARS OF INDIAN REQRSANIZATION
By D'Arcy McNickle, Administrative Assistant
Office of Indian Affairs
Sara Ann Mayo, Washo Indian Of
Dresserville (Carson Agency),
Nevada, Who, Three Tears Ago,
Walked Twenty-Five Miles To Vote
For The Indian Reorganization Act.
In years past, the
seasons came and went , and left
the Indians untouched. They
watched the spring come, watched
the hot growing weather, and
watched while the harvest was
reaped. Through the long win-
ter they waited and watched and
kept themselves warm as best
they could. If they were no
richer at the end of the year,
possibly they were a little wis-
er in Becky Sharp's ways of liv-
ing on nothing a year.
Another growing season
is upon us, and this year, for
some Indians, there is a differ-
ence. There are grain fields
growing. Hay is ripening. Calves
and lambs are finding their legs.
It is four years since
the Indian Reorganization Act was
passed by Congress and signed by
the President, four years on June
18th. In four years tribes have
beconie organized and incorporated,
money has gone into tribal treas-
uries, land has been purchased,
students have secured loans to
attend colleges and professional
schools. For these, life will
be different this year.
Many of the things be-
ing done today through the agency
of the Reorganization Act have been done in the past. Tribes have
set up governing bodies before. Tribes have borrowed money from the
government. But in just these two instances, alone, there are dif-
ferences. In the past, tribal organization has been nominal- The
constitutions under which tribes operated were usually no more than
a set of by-laws governing the conduct of business meetings. In
the matter of borrowing racney, there was likewise small participa-
tion by the Indian in the transaction. The superintendent of the
reservation, seeking to help the Indian and to make profitable use
of available resources, would recommend and secure approval of a
reimbursable loan, which the Indians, usually as individuals but
sometimes as tribes, were persuaded to assume. It was not unheard
of to have such a loan made for activities which the Indians did
not approve and in which their participation was half-hearted at
best. The ratio of bad loans under this system was inordinately
high, and the feeling grew up in the Service and out of it that In-
dians were irresponsible - poor credit risks- It was easy to prove
the case on the basis of the record.
The Indian Reorganization Act, apart from certain legal
developments, is primarily a training school in self-government
and economic self-management . The Act made possible the granting
of specific powers to tribal governments. These powers are writ-
ten into the constitutions or charters which the tribes are adopt-
ing. Thus the tribal governments are not the functionless 'debat-
ing societies of the past. They are municipal councils with specif-
ic powers to perform. A tribal government which successfully per-
forms the duties assumed by it will find itself taking over more
and more of the authority which in the past was exercised by the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs and his agents.
In the matter of defining its membership, of governing
the conduct of its members, of enforcing law and order, of leasing
tribal land and managing tribal resources, of governing its elec-
tions, of providing aid for its aged and indigent, the tribes can
go about as far as they choose and can devise the means for .
So, in the matter of borrowing money, there is an impor-
tant difference. A source of credit is not in itself the vital
thing. But when money borrowing is made a function of economic
planning and of studying resources for their profitable exploita-
tion, then there is hope. It is just in this way that the Reorgan-
ization Act breaks with the past. A number of loans have been made,
the statistics of which will be given in a moment, and in each case
the actual transfer of money from the revolving credit fund to the
Indian tribe was preceded by weeks of study and discussion. For
many Indians this was the first time they had even thought of their
reservation objectively, as a place in which to invest money. There
was also a study of individual character more exacting than most
bankers' practice. When finally the money was in hand, its appor-
Front Row - Shoshone Council : Gilbert Day, Chairman,
Charles Washakie, Benjamin Perry, Frank Cordova, Robert Harris,
and Lynn St. Clair. Back Row - Arapaho Council ; Nellie
Scott, Chairman, Bruce Grosebeck, Charles Whiteman,
Mike Goggles, Sr., John Goggles, and Robert Friday.
Wind River Reservation, Wyoming.
tioned use was already provided for, and it went with activities
for which there was a definite need and in which return was fairly
assured. Payments on these loans have in every case to date been
ahead of schedule. And that is the proof.
The Indian Reorganization Act is four years old on the
statute books, but actually it has been in operation only three
years, since the first appropriations were not available until the
year after its passage. Let us review the statistics of these
three functioning years.
The Indian tribes were given the question of what they
intended to do with the law after it was put on the statute books.
They could vote yes or no on its acceptance. A total of 266 tribes,
bands, or groups were asked to ballot on the question. Of that
total 189 tribes, with a population of 130,173 Indians, accepted
the law. A group of 77 tribes, representing 86,365 Indians i re-
jected it. When first written, the Reorganization Act excluded
the Indians of Oklahoma and Alaska from all but a few minor provi-
Superintendent Alida C Bowler of Carson Agency In Nevada,
And The Walker River Tribal Council
sions. In 1936 the 28 tribes in Oklahoma, excluding only the Osage,
and the natives of Alaska were permitted to take full advantage of
the Act. This added approximately 120,000 Indians to the total. Thus
today, 250,000 Indians are carrying on under a new order, while 85,000
Indians are on the outside, many of them requesting a chance to re-
verse their decision.
In this month of June, constitutions and by-laws have been
adopted by 82 tribes, having a combined population of 93,520. Of
these, 57 tribes, with 64,074 members, have become chartered corpora-
tions. Incorporation is necessary before money can be borrowed from
the revolving credit fund.
Summarizing credit operations, commitments of $3,503,811
have been made and a total of $1,131,805 has actually been advanced
to tribal corporations. An additional sum of $65,000 has still to
be approved. In Oklahoma, loans are made on a slightly different
basis and so separate figures are kept. The total amount advanced
in loans direct to individuals or to Indian credit associations is
$682,000, and only a negligible amount is awaiting approval.
Land purchase, one of Reorganization' 3 main objectives,
will progress slowly. Congress has not made available in any one
year the $2,000,000 authorized in the law. The total amount of
land purchase money after three years of appropriations has been
but $2,950,000. With these funds purchase has been completed of
168,654 acres, while 235., 57? acres are under option with purchase
still to be completed. The Act also authorized the return of sur-
plus land to reservation holdings, when in the opinion of the Sec-
retary of the Interior it was deemed advisable. Under this author-
ity, a total of 350,000 acres has been returned to Indian ownership.
A vast area of 5,000,000 acres of such so-called surplus lands,
lands which were set apart for homestead entry, is subject to this
In years past, Indians were especially handicapped by
lack of higher education. The state universities were open to
them if they could get together the registration fees and support
themselves while attending classes. Comparatively few Indians had
the encouragement or the means to continue after they finished an
Indian Service boarding school or a public high school. Here, too,
the Reorganization Act is changing the picture. Funds are available
under the Act for advancing educational loans to interested students.
At the present time, 445 students are attending college and profes-
sional schools with the help of such loans.
Out of this background of statistics emerges an array of
human facts which gives reality to this story of Reorganization. It
isn't enough to have a law on the statute books. The law must oper-
ate in the lives of men and women before it begins to have meaning.
The meaning is coming into being.
At Hydaburg, a village of 318 natives on Prince of Wales
Island in Alaska, community organization and incorporation will
make possible the rejuvenation of a local canning and fishing indus-
try which for years has struggled along on insufficient financing.
The community is well worth investing in, as its records show. It
owns its own town hall, its shipping dock, it is clear of all debts
and its individual families own their own homes, the average value
of which is $1,500. Twenty-five of the natives own their own seine
boats and seven own salmon trollers, each boat being valued at ap-
proximately $2,500. There is also a cooperative community store
which was organized in 1911 and at present owns a capital stock of
$33,000. Almost every individual in the community is a stockholder.
The store is managed entirely by natives. With money to keep the
local cannery operating at capacity, the village population will be
assured of its future income.
At Hopi, where nine separate villages (speaking two lan-
guages and several dialects) have come down through the centuries,
each jealous of its own identity and its own sovereignty, what seemed
impossible was attempted - and achieved. Anthropologists and old
Service men, some of them, were alike in their feeling that Hopi
would have none of tribal organization - of any kind of organiza-
tion which meant a working together of all the villages. There was
no tradition for it, and Hopi followed tradition. But they were
wrong. Hopi did want organization, or, as it is put in the preamble
of the constitution, it wanted "a way of working together for peace
and agreement between the villages and of preserving the good things
of Hopi life, and to provide a way of organizing -bo deal with modern
problems with the United States Government and with the world gener-
ally." Only once, in a history going back to the days before the
Spanish invasion, had such united action been taken. That was in
1680, when the Hopi villages, along with the other Pueblos, joined
in wrath to drive the Spaniards out of New Mexico.
At Tongue River Reservation in Montana an ambitious tribal
steer enterprise has been set up, and after a year of operation, is
running ahead of expectations. The Northern Cheyenne Indians living
on this reservation have been in the cattle business before, and
have come to grief. The long, hard winter experienced in their part
of the country is especially destructive to calf crops, a factor
which has brou^it ruin to any plan of starting with a foundation
herd and building up a marketable surplus. The present scheme of
operations is one requiring heavy financing, but in the end it
should prove a profitable one. To begin with, the tribe is borrow-
ing each year $85,000, and with this loan is purchasing yearling
steers for summer and winter feeding. The steers will be sold at
the end of the second summer on the range, and the proceeds will
pay back the first loan of $85,000 and part of the second year's
advance of the same amount .
Gradually, the amount of indebtedness will be decreased
and the amount of earnings invested in the enterprise increased,
until eventually it will operate without further borrowing. The
plan is a flexible one, since in a poor year purchases may be cur-
tailed or suspended entirely; the number of steers carried through
the winter will always be less by half than are carried in the sum-
mer, thus lessening the chances of winter losses and the cost of
At Blackfeet, there has been a thorough overhauling of
tribal economy. For years this reservation, the largest in Montana,
has been under an economic cloud, the result, largely, of lack of
planning. Irrigated land for providing winter feed, credit for
financing individual and tribal needs in livestock and farming e-
quipment, rehabilitation funds for reestablishing families on the
land - these are the pressing needs. The tribal council has taken
the initiative in seeking a solution to its problems. With its
own funds, and with funds which the government will advance from
money appropriated under the Indian Reorganization Act, an exten-
sive program of economic rehabilitation has been started.
At Jicarilla there has also been an interesting transform-
ation. With good reason, those familiar with the tribe doubted
that reorganization would interest its members . For years it had
been considered among the most "backward" of the tribes. It had
no tradition of leadership, and it did not seem possible at this
late date to introduce a concept foreign to the tribal experience.
In spite of these misgivings something has happened at Jicarilla.
The tribe has become incorporated and has taken over the extensive
trading establishment owned and operated by a white man for a num-
ber of years. Evidently the Jicarillas can advance without strong
individual leadership. They do it by unanimous action. In their
elections to date, almost no negative votes have been cast. The
Jicarillas move as one body.
At Rosebud, out in the Sioux country, a submerged social
structure has been brought out of hiding. For years tribal decisions
have been made, not in general council meetings, but in the local
communities, the Tioshpai, the existence of which was not even known
to most government men directing the reservation.
Now, recognized and given a chance to function, these
community organizations are proving invaluable in reaching the peo-
ple of the tribe and getting united action.
At Flathead, the first tribe to set its house in order,
organization found a unique opportunity. A great power company,
which in 1932 had been licensed to develop the Flathead power site,
one of the most important sites in the whole Northwest, had de-
faulted on its contract and was playing the part of the dog in the
manger, while the Interior and Justice Departments searched for a
way out. Having become incorporated, and having therefore the
legal right to sue in its own name, the Flathead Tribe took steps
to bring suit for damages amounting to $7,000,000. This was just
the impetus needed. Almost overnight the power company thought
better of its tactics and sought a new contract, in which vital
concessions were made to the tribe. Very shortly now a great dam
will be completed at Flathead and the tribal treasury will begin
to receive a large annual rental from the sale of power. But Flat-
head has done more than win a legal battle. Aware of the serious
land problem which it, like tribes everywhere face, it is asking
Congress for the right to use its own funds for land purchase. It
is not willing to wait for Congress to appropriate money at some
indefinite time in the future. It wants to go ahead now, and it
is willing to take the initiative.
These are but a few highlights in the general scene. They
indicate some of the currents that have been set up. They axe not
intended to indicate how far the trend has gone or how soon any one
question will be answered. Something has started, and here is the
general direction in which it moves.
What has been done, in truth, is only a fragment of the
task remaining. Tribal governments have serious need of education
in public administration, in Indian laws, treaties and regulations,
and in the use of the powers embedded in their own constitutions.
Failure to get this education may fairly well destroy the whole
purpose of the reorganization program.
There is a tendency in Congress to reduce the funds allottee
for Indian Reorganization purposes, in its theory that, now that, so
many of the tribes are organized, the need for future work is dimin-
ishing. This is an unfortunate view to take, since it jeopardizes
every advance made up to this time. It is not a simple matter of
organizing tribes and lending money to them. They will need, for
several years yet, as much encouragement and assistance as can be
given them, not in the doing of things for them, but in showing
them how they can do for themselves.
No government can function without revenue. So long as
tribal funds remain tied up in the United States Treasury, the
tribes will have to look elsewhere for the funds necessary to oper-
ate on. Those fortunate tribes possessing land which can be leased
have such a source of income ready at hand- But there are many
tribes who have no such resources, and for these the whole machin-
ery of self-government may remain stalled indefinitely.
The problem of allotted and heirship lands is a stagger-
ing one to deal with; yet, on many reservations the whole future
of economic development is tied up with the question of how best
to deal with the situation.
On most reservations the problem of law and order is
acute. Federal jurisdiction extends only to the ten "major" crimes.
Beyond those is avast shadow-land of domestic relations, misde-
meanors and general community problems which neither the state nor
the federal government has dealt with successfully. Good communi-
ties will not be built up where law and order remains chaotic. The
Indian Reorganization Act clothes the tribes with sufficient author-
ity to handle such questions, but they have ahead of them the task
of learning the proper use of their powers.
The problems are many and certainly there is no intention
of belittling them. It is possible, nevertheless, to realize that
where in the past there have been only misgiving and despair for
the future of the Indians, today there is reason to be hopeful. For
some Indians, at least, there is already a difference. Something
has begun to happen. When this year's harvest comes around, some
few Indians will have something to garner. That is a beginning.
FIRST VOLUNTARY ASSIGNMENT OF ALLOTTED LAND TO TRIBE
MADE AT QUINAIELT . WASHINGTON
By Walter V. Woehlke, Assistant to the Commissioner
Ferrill Johnson, Quinaielt allottee No- 903, has conveyed
to the United States in trust for the Quinaielt Trice, title to his
allotment . Ordinarily such a conveyance would not attract more than
passing attention; but in this instance, the action of allottee John-
son has real significance. It is the first known instance of the
voluntary return of a piece of allotted land to tribal ownership.
The results of allotment, the loss of land to the Indians,,
and the subdivision of allotments into numerous unusable heirship
fractions, are too well-known to need repetition. The cure for this
allotted land disease lies in the return of title to allotments and
to heirship lands to the United States in trust for the tribe, the
Indian making the transfer receiving back either an assignment of
land or an equivalent interest in tribal property or benefits-
The allotment conveyed by Ferrill Johnson to the Quinaielt
Tribe had been denuded of its timber. By a very heavy investment
for clearing, a portion of the allotment might have been made avail-
able for farming, but its principal value lay in the production of
more trees. No private owner could have afforded to have reforested
this land. But the tribe and the Federal Government could carry out
these reforestation processes, incidentally affording a certain
amount of work for the allottee. Seeing clearly that both the tribe
and he individually would be benefited by this transfer, the allottee
relinquished his title in favor of the tribe. Now reforestation
activities can take place on this new piece of tribal land.
Other owners of allotments in similar condition on the
Quinaielt Reservation will probably likewise convey their allotments
to the tribe, according to a recent report from Superintendent Nels
***** * * *
RECENT CHANGES OF ASSIGNMENT
Several changes were made in superintendents' assignments
on June 1. Lewis W. Page, formerly a supervisor in the CCC-ID, be-
came Superintendent at the Choctaw Agency in Mississippi; Archie
Hector, formerly Choctaw Superintendent, became Superintendent of
the Shawnee Agency in Oklahoma; and Fred E. Perkins,* formerly Shawnee
Superintendent, became Field Supervisor At Large, with headquarters
at Muskogee, Oklahoma.
WINNEBAGO TRIBAL COUNCIL MEMBERS LEARN LOCAL
SCHOOL PROBLEMS FIRST-HAND
On May 3, Superintendent Gabe E. Parker, Assistant Di-
rector of Education Paul Fickinger, Superintendent of Schools Joe
Jennings, Superintendent Samuel H. Thompson and Principal Richard
Mortenson met with the Macy Public School Board for the purpose
of formulating a contract for the operation of the Macy Government
School in Macy, Nebraska, for the coming school year. The unusual
feature of the meeting, however, was the fact that Superintendent
Parker invited the Omaha Tribal Council to be present during the
discussion of the regulations between the Indian Office representa-
tives and the members of the Public School Board.
During the discussion, the taxing system and the financial
situation of the local district were fully discussed. The economic
situation, the debt of the local school board, and state aid -were
also considered. Ways and means of meeting the desperate financial
situation of the Macy Public School Board were proposed, and a long
discussion followed as to the type of school program that should
be offered, the needs of both whites and Indians, and whether or
not state recognition -should be requested. During all of these
discussions the members of the tribal council participated and made
many pertinent suggestions.
ROSEBUD SIOUX COUNCIL DRAFTS TAX MEASURE
A3 PROPOSED SOURCE OF OPERATING REVENUE
Efficient self-government, members of the tribal council
of the Rosebud Sioux in South Dakota have realized, calls for a
certain amount of money on which to operate- To raise the money,
the council has drawn a tentative ordinance calling for various
types of small taxes: a poll tax, a motor vehicle tax, a dog tax,
a tax on livestock owned by Indians, a tax upon Indian Service em-
ployees, a tax upon permits to Indians to live on tribal and admin-
istrative reserves and a tax upon lease contracts.
The Rosebud Sioux know that this proposed measure is a
pioneer one; consequently the council has invited comments and crit-
icism from agency workers and has had the proposed ordinance mime-
ographed and distributed among members of the tribe. Washington
office officials also were asked for suggestions during the recent
visit of council members to Washington. This procedure is indica-
tive of the constructive thinking being done among many Indian
groups and of their eagerness to secure cooperation from all sources.
3 ; Wk
?*S*4 i .'»..'•'■' ;.'|
1 . ■;%'
- i ■■
•• : - M?' 7
By R. L- Whitcomb, District Road Engineer
Spreading Windrowed Material With Patrol.
said the old Choctaw
to his friend, "they
are going to build
road out of salt. Road
engineer crazy. Bet
cows - hogs lick her
all up in week. Here
come bunch of Road
boys now. Find out
about salt lick road."
The old Choc-
taw watches, listens
and learns .
The next day, after watching the Indian Road gang lay
about a half-mile of the "salt lick" road, the old Choctaw again
met his friend. "I watch boys put down salt stuff," he said. "Go
out to gravel pit. Get just right kind gravel. Shake hsr 'round
many box screen on bottom. Put little clay in. Mix all up. Pile
"Big machine named patrol come. Push gravel all around.
Thing like wheat drill come. Sprinkle salt all over whole business.
Soak it down, sprinkle water. Thing like big automobile come. Big
wheels, no engine. Roll her down. Smooth and hard like ice. Boya
say road wear long,
long time. Boys
say this road cheap
- thirteen hundred
dollars mile .
school bus out of
mud. Guess I bet-
ter ^et job on salt
road. Guess Road
boys know how."
Spreading Salt With Mechanical Spreader.
SUMMARY OF INDIAN SERVICE APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1939
The act making appropriations for the Department of the
Interior for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939, approved May 9,
1933, provides funds for the various activities of the Indian Serv-
ice, exclusive of re-appropriations and continuing appropriations,
totaling $31,911,314.66. This sum is made up from general funds
of the Treasury $30,424,356.66 and from tribal funds and school
revenues to the extent of $1,486,985.
The following tabulation gives a comparison of the ap-
propriations made from the general funds of the Treasury for vari-
ous activities for the fiscal years 1938 and 1939:
General Expenses-. $1,772,010.00
ance & Advance-
ment 1 9. IP 500 .on
Water Supply 70,000.00
Irrigation & Drain-
+■ 481. 923. 00
General Support &
Roads & Bridges ... 3,020,000.00
Annuities, per cap-
ita payments & in-
terest on tribal
Buildings & Util-
Use of tribal funds is authorized for such general pur-
poses as education, $312,995; support of Indians and administration
of Indian property, $378,810; relief of needy Indians, $100,000;
and expenses of tribal councils and delegations to Washington, $50,000.
There are few new appropriation items in the act for 1939.
One such item is $25,000 for a survey and appraisal of the property
and reindeer authorized to be acquired for the natives of Alaska
under the provisions of an act approved September 1, 1937.
The unexpended balances of appropriations totaling more
than $1,700,000 made by various acts since 1928 from the tribal
funds of the Indians and authorized to be expended for industrial
assistance to individual members of the tribes are continued as
available for the fiscal year 1939. The expenditures from these
funds are to be repaid to the tribe and all such repayments are
credited back to the tribal account and become available for addi-
tional loans. The principal change in this item for the fiscal
year 1939 is the provision that the appropriations under this head-
ing for any tribe may be advanced to such tribe, if incorporated,
for making loans to members of the tribal corporation under rules
and regulations established for the making of loans from the re-
volving loan fund authorized by the Indian Reorganization Act of
Charters ; Yes No
April 23 Warm Springs Indians of Oregon 180 62
May 21 Bad River Indians of Wisconsin 105 80
May 23 Stockbridge - Munsee Indians of
May 23 Kalispel Indians of Idaho 21 1
June 6 Fort McDowell, Arizona 71 4
May 18 Kiowa Apache Indians of Oklahoma ... 62 73*
May 31 Te-Moak Indians of Nevada 47 20
Amendment to Charter ;
April 30 Makah Indians of Washington Did not carry
because of lack of 30$ vote.
Amendment to Constitution :
May 14 Oneida Indians of Wisconsin Did not carry
becau se o f la ck of 30-% vo te .
•This is the second time this group has voted down a constitution.
LEE MUCK BE COMES DIRECT OR OF FORESTS FOR INTERIOR DEPARTMENT
Lee Muck, Director of Forestry and Grazing for the Indian
Service, has been appointed by Secretary Ickes as Director of For-
ests for the Department of the Interior, a post newly created to
coordinate all the activities in forest conservation and management
on public lands under the jurisdiction of the Department of the In-
terior. He will continue in his Indian Service position.
i^L'H^fa. . .— - -
CCC-ID POWDER SCHOOL . FORT APACHE . ARIZONA
By Erik W. Allstrom, Camp Superintendent, CCC-ID
"F-i-i-i-^lh-^, ,, echoed from down the road and up the road
and over on the short-cut trail. Shortly there came the heavy
"boom" of the blast, as one hundred thirty-seven holes of dynamite
were exploded by the current of a forty-hole battery.
So ended the three-day powder handling class held concur-
rently with the District Fire Fighting School on the Fort Apache
Reservation late in April. (See page 35.)
When the enrollees gathered for the Fire School at White-
river they were accompanied by seven extra men, four from the Fort
Apache Reservation, and three others, one each from Truxton Canon,
Mescalero and Ute Mountain. When they were not taking part in the
work of dynamite handling they took part with the others in fire
prevention and fire fighting work-
The instructors, representatives of two powder companies
which furnish the government with electric exploders, expressed
themselves as being well impressed with the way the Indian boys
handled the jack-hammers in drilling holes for blasting.
When the correct number of holes had been drilled on two
different actual jobs of road building, the boys were carefully in-
structed in springing deep holes and cleaning them, in making dyna-
mite primers and in different methods of electric wiring for most
advantageous use of blasting powder. A number of the supervising
and facilitating personnel present at the Fire School also attended
the powder demonstrations and indicated that they were highly
pleased at the way it was being done, and at the opportunity to
learn some new things for themselves. Of particular interest was
the method of "series in parallel" hook-up, whereby it was possible
to shoot one hundred thirty-seven holes with a battery otherwise
only strong enough to handle forty holes.
( Note : Photographs which appear on the opposite page are by Erik
W. Allstrom. )
TRIBAL COUNCIL SENDS ENCOURAGING- REPORT ON LOWER BRULB AFFAIRS
Loner Brule Reservation, Crow Creek Agency, South Dakota
April 12, 1938.
Indians At Work,
Washington, D. C.
You may want to hear the Lower Brule news.
The greatest thing the Indian Office ever done, was this T.C.B.
I .A.* group investigating the Indians* conditions- Now the Indian
Affairs can say they know the conditions of the Indians, especially
Lower Brule Tribe. For the past 18 or 20 years the Lower Brule
Tribe had been ditched but now for the last three years our govern-
ment try to get us out of the ditch. The Lower Brule Tribe were
neglected for about 18 years, but about two years ago Mr. Collier
came to us and see the condition we was in and sympathy with us
and he promise us that he is going to get us out this ditch we are
in. Now I can say we got out of this ditch.
We have in operation a good school. We have a teacher - Mr.
Arehart, Miss Mattson and also Mrs. Arehart are all good people.
The children axe getting noon dinners, plenty milk to drink and
gaining weight right along. They are teaching manual training.
They are busy training and trying to bring the younger people to
the front and fixing up and repairing buildings. Now they are.
adding a washroom and toilet on the schoolhouse. And we expect
to have a better school than any other reservation. And the chil-
dren are very glad to go to school. And this shows that we have
a good leader. And we also have a good community hall with a place
to can, electric lights and hot air heater. This is one of the
greatest improvements we got. And we have 17 new houses with base-
ments and toilets.
Now some of our young people are getting out on farms which
is bought with Reorganization funds and they will get loans from
the revolving funds to stock up by live-stock. We got enough sur-
plus land now that we can run 5,000 head of cattle on this reserva-
tion. Also the farmer, Mr. Roush is very busy with the 4-H Club
*The Indian Service cannot take all the credit for this survey; it
is one of a series of economic surveys being conducted cooperative-
ly on a number of reservations by the Soil Conservation Service's
unit on Technical Cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
boys and girls, starting out 18 acres of community garden end also
seven acres of individual gardens. That give every person a chance
to prepare for the winter coming. This ground is all prepared and
in good shape now and all is going to he under irrigation and I
think we are going to accomplish something if the grasshoppers and
mormon crickets don't beat us-
And Superintendent, Mr. Hyde and his assistant, Mr. Scott, are
very busy working with us, and I might include Mr. Mount j"oy and Mr.
Ben Reifel all cooperate with us. And the stock association is
going full swing. We got a herd now of over 600 head. We have In-
dian directors for our association. Mr. Jim Byrnes, Mr. Alex Ren-
countre and Mr. Moses DeSrait. Mr. Moses BeSmit is the foreman over
the association for cattle and they are going to farm about 600
acres at the cattle ranch. They have bought machinery to operate
the farms which will be worked by the Indians themselves. And al-
so we have such a good doctor that our population is increasing.
And it would be far better if we had a field nurse. Now I don't
care what other people think or say. We get lot of function from
this New Deal and we appreciate very much. If nothing happens I
think we will get back on our feet again.
The history of Lower Brule Tribe is a clean one. Our great
chief, Iron Nation, was popular because he wasn't a warrior or a
grea/t medicine man or a Ghost Dancer. He was a chief and a peace
maker. He got his people engage in peace and in farming and stock
raising. So his tribe was a leading tribe in the Sioux Nation. It
shows in the history. He send man out to other Sioux warriors to
have peace with other nations- It shows on the record- The Iron
Nation Tribe of Lower Brule was going to get 50 head of mares from
the government and also 100 blankets but he gave this to other
tribes to quiet their warriors so Iron Nation is a great peace
maker. His tribe, the Lower Brule, was a leading tribe in every-
thing you might say. His tribe was the first one to accept the
religion on the west side of the river and other good things that
come from the government. He always advise his tribe to take it
and since him and his leaders have passed away seems as though we
are a lost tribe, but now our young generation are waking up and
trying to get back where our leaders left off •
Chairman of the Lower Brule Council,
By the Lower Brule Council,
(Signed) Reuben Sstes-
TBJ LIQ.UOR QUESTION AS IT AFFBCTS INDIANS
The prohibition of alcohol among Indians is a problem
which is of strong interest to Indians and to those concerned with
Indian welfare today. Sharply conflicting views have been presented
by Indian Service workers, friends of Indians, and Indians them-
Under the present law, there has been until 1933 univer-
sal prohibition of the sale of alcohol to Indians and prohibition of
the possession or transportation of liquor on Indian reservations.
Enforcement of these laws is almost wholly an Indian Service respon-
In recent years, Congress has passed a number of acts
breaking down to some extent the uniformity of the Indian liquor
laws. Through the Hastings Amendment in 1934, the entire Five Civ-
ilized Tribes and Quapaw Areas of Oklahoma were taken out from the
Indian liquor laws. In June 1933, Congress passed a law authoriz-
ing the manufacture, sale and possession of 3.2 per cent beer in
Oklahoma if legalized by the State. In July the State legalized
the sale of 3.2 beer and it was held that this action, coupled with
the Congressional Act of June 15, 1933, removed the prohibition a-
gainst the sale of 3.2 per cent beer to Indians in Oklahoma. Last
year the town of Hardin, Montana, within the Crow Reservation, was
exempted from the Indian liquor laws by Act of Congress, but the
sale of liquor specifically to Indians within Hardin continues to
be prohibited. Congress has also legislated to permit the intro-
duction of liquor into portions of the Chippewa treaty area in Min-
Answering a question propounded by the House Committee
on Appropriations at a hearing this past winter, Commissioner Col-
lier stated that effective law enforcement among the Indians would
require an annual appropriation of not less than $690,000. The
amount provided in the Interior Appropriation Bill passed by the
House is only $237,290.
Secretary Ickes has stated:
"Prohibition is enforced without much difficulty
in those regions where the Indians live apart from
whites. And there are Pueblo Tribes which obtain com-
plete enforcement through their own self-governing or-
dinances, even though they are located close to white
towns. Where Indians are scattered among whites, the
enforcement of prohibition against Indians is a costly
and to some extent an ineffectual operation. Yet the
case of Alaska indicates that absence of prohibitory-
laws does not make for temperance among Indians. The
situation presents one of the most baffling problems
in connection with the guardianship of Indians, and
one of the gravest problems of Indian life."
The Klamath Tribe of Oregon, whose members live close
to white towns, such as Klamath Palls and Chiloquin, has had a bill
introduced in Congress to create a system of local option. Under
the terms of this bill, if the tribe exercised its option, a per-
mit system, modeled upon the experience of Sweden, would be sub-
stituted for prohibition; that is, individual Indians would be
granted permits to purchase and consume liquor which would be re-
voked by the tribal council if the permittees showed marked intem-
perance or if abuse of the permits became evident. The tribal council
of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Res-
ervation in Montana has unanimously endorsed a measure to permit
the sale of light wines and beer. On the other side, serious pres-
entations have been made to the effect that in the absence of any
prohibitory legislation, natives of Alaska are being debauched to
the extent of threatening the existence of whole communities. But
even within Alaska, there are groups of Indians sharply opposed to
any discriminatory legislation prohibiting the sale of liquor to
At an election on March 26, the Potawatomi Indians of
Kansas registered opinion on the question of whether to petition
the Indian Office to sponsor a bill to permit the sale of 3-2 per
cent beer to Indians in Kansas. The vote proved to be against a
petition: 80 to 23. According to newspaper accounts, the women
of the jurisdiction were the deciding factor.
A tragedy of frightful proportions at Fort Totten, North
Dakota, a year ago last winter focussed attention sharply on the
liquor problem and the allied problem of prohibitory legislation.
Eleven Indians, men and women, died in January 1937 from the effects
of drinking automobile anti-freeze alcohol. Six children were com-
pletely orphaned and six more lost one parent.
Several of the Indian tribes which have organized under
the Indian Reorganization Act and have undertaken to adopt a law
and order code pursuant with their constitutions have specifical-
ly included a section providing a penalty for the sale, trade, pos-
session, and so forth, of intoxicating liquors.
Here sire a few sample opinions on the Indian prohibition
An Indian Service superintendent, himself of Indian blood,
"I can't tell you how strongly I am opposed to
letting Indians have free access to liquor. If the law
is repealed - well, I don't want to be at this reserva-
tion; that's all."
On the same question, a full-blood Indian judge said,
through an interpreter:
"Some Indians do not like being treated differ-
ent from the white man about drinking. It is as if we
were children. The way to be wise about something is to
learn about it by experience, a little at a time, and to
learn by the mistakes you make. I think we Indians can
learn to control ourselves at least as well as the white
men do. But this drinking - it is a serious problem. It
can be a very bad thing, especially for the young people.
I do not want my people to come to harm just because they
want to imitate what white people (and some of them not j
good white people) do. If they ever change the law, they
should think about it a long time first."
A white resident of Tucson writes to Commissioner Collier
as follows (it might be said that the writer's assumption that gen-
eral legislation affecting Indian prohibition is now, or has been
under consideration, is erroneous):
"I have noted in the press here that a movement
is on foot to give Indians the right to purchase wines
"I have lived in Arizona more than eighteen
years, have had Indian help, both male and female, and
know of the effect on Indians of alcohol from actual con-
tact with the Indians here. I know that alcohol cannot
be taken by Indians in modaration. The effect on them is
dangerous in the extreme."
A member of the tribal council at Klamath Agency, Oregon,
where a bill for a permit system has been sponsored, discussed his
views as follows:
"I can't speak for other reservations, but I think I know
our own situation pretty thoroughly. And it is this: prohibition
simply can't be enforced at Klamath with' the personnel now avail-
able. Let me describe the reservation. There are 1,106,000 acres
within its limits. Over 5,000 people live in those limits and only
1,100 of them are Indians. Under the law, none of those 3,900
whites are supposed to possess or transport liquor, whether for
their own use or for Indians 1 use. They do, of course, and a lot
of it reaches the Indians-
"There is a state liquor store fourteen miles away at
Fort Klamath. At Chiloquin, five miles from the agency, a town of
about 1,850 population, near where there are many Indian homes,
beer is sold. Beer is sold at Sprague River and at Bly there is
another state liquor store. At Klamath Falls, our nearest large
town, 35 miles from the agency, there is another state liquor store
and a number of places which sell beer.
"Running north and south through the western part of the
reservation are the San Francisco-Portland Highway and two rail-
roads. Running east and west, with a number of flag stops, is the
Great Northern Railroad; also a state highway.
"Scattered throughout the reservation are a number of
logging camps - each with one to two hundred employees - some of
them Indians, but mostly whites.
"For all this area there are three Indian Service law
enforcement officers; one at Beatty, one at Sprague River and one
at Klamath Agency. There is a county officer and also a town of-
ficer at Chiloquin, a county officer at Sprague River and a county
officer at Beatty. These men are supposed to do all the law en-
forcement work, not just liquor law enforcement, in an area almost
as big as the State of Delaware.
"Another point to consider is that this situation is not
going to change. We have several billion feet of timber at Klamath
which is still to be marketed over a period of years. Tne logging
camps and mills and the intermixture of white people on the reser-
vation will continue. The liquor law is going to be just as hard
to enforce in the future as it is now.
"I think it would be only sensible to recognize the fact
that the la.w isn't being enforced - as the country as a whole rec-
ognized the failure of the general prohibition amendment - and to
change the law. We Klamaths are citizens and voters and would like
to see our opinions put into effect. "
The situation, then, is this: No legislation affecting
prohibition for Indians has been proposed by the Department of the
Interior on behalf of the Indian Service. No general legislation
of any kind has been proposed. At the request of the Indians in-
volved, two bills have been introduced to modify the prohibition
law locally: one by Congressman Pierce of Oregon which would af-
fect the Klamath Indians of Oregon and one by Congressman O'Connell
of Montana, which would authorize the issuance of permits to the
Indians of Flathead to purchase light wines and beer. At this date,
neither bill seems likely to pass the present Congress, since neith-
er had, at the date of writing - June 13 - been reported out of the
Congressional committees on Indian affairs. In the meantime, the
Office of Indian Affairs is eager to have thoughtful comment on the
prohibition question as affecting Indians.
DISTRICT CAMP SUPERVISOR RECEIVES AQUATIC INSTRUCTOR ' S CERTIFICATE
By John P. Watson, In Charge, CCC-ID Safety Division
The American Red Cross completed a threes-day Aquatic Ex-
aminer' s Training course at Spokane, Washington late in April, un-
der the supervision of Ralph E. Carlson, National Red Cross Repre-
Gerrit Smith, CCC-ID District Camp Supervisor, in charge
of the Safety Program in District 5, was one of the successful can-
didates. By completing this training Mr. Smith is qualified to
conduct courses and give examinations for four types of aquatic
certificates: Beginners, Swimmers, Junior Life Saving and Senior
Life Saving, according to standards established by the American
Red Cross. Having previously passed the Red Cross First Aid In-
structor's examination, Mr. Smith is now qualified to give exam-
inations for Standard First-Aid certificates as well.
Training in aquatic safety is a mandatory phase of the
CCC-ID Safety Program for selected enrolled personnel at agencies
and in camps throughout the service.
CROW FAIR DATES SET FOR AUGUST 29 - SEPTEMBER 2
The Crow Fair has become known not only throughout the
Northwest but in the E a st as well. The Northern Cheyennes will
take part in the show this year, as well as the Crows, and the Fort
Peck Indian band has been engaged to furnish music for the occasion.
The Crow Fair is unique as an Indian-planned and Indian-
executed event. Careful plans are being made to accommodate visitors,
OLD ABMY AND MARINE CORPS CLOTH I NO PUT TO GOOD USE
The ingenuity of Indian women in making attractive and
serviceable garments out of surplus or worn Array and Marine CorpB
goods is illustrated by reports sent in by Mrs. Helen M. Carlson,
Home Economics teacher at the Makah Reservation, Tulalip, Washington
and by Miss Ella M. Stubbs, Home Economics teacher at the Tulalip
From remnants and short lengths of blue denim and gabar-
dine, from blue broadcloth Marine coats, khaki pants, heavy Army
overcoats, and Army woolen underwear, Indian women retrieved the
good parts and cut and fashioned a variety of auilts and garments.
The Bathing Suits Worn By These Wean Bay
Children Were Once Army Woolen Drawers
A Short Cotton
Coat Made This
The Top Half Of This
Outfit Was A Marine
Coat; The Lower Half
Was Made From Worn
Wears A Suit Made
From A Marine Coat
THE AMERICAN INDIAN SIGN LANGUAGE
By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution
( Note : This is Section 2 of an article on the American Indian
Sign Language. The first section appeared in the issue of March 1938)
The old Indians laugh when they tell the story of how an early white man, ob-
serving Indians using the sign language, thought they were child-like persons who had
not developed a full normal speech. The fact was that the early white man was observing
the most marvelous gesture development to he found on any continent, comparable to the
invention of the Chinese ideographs in the Old World.
Proof That . The Signs Are Based On Spoken Language
Since signs flow freely from the expert user, it might seem that they are in-
dependent of the spoken word. But such is not the case. The signs are everywhere based
on spoken language and reflect it at every turn. The word order, the syntax, the vocab-
ulary (the peculiar bundles of concepts tied together under the label of each word) of
the American Indian sign language all prove it to be based, originally and constantly,
on the spoken language of the user, whatever Indian idiom he happens to use as his daily
speech. For a brilliant example to prove this one needs to go no further than to word
order. The sign for God is a compound one, consisting of a sign meaning medicine , mys-
tery, or spirit , according to the various spoken languages, and of a sign meaning big .
In the Kiowa language the spoken form is daa'k' ia-'eidl , meaning medicine-big , and the
Kiowa makes first the sign for medicine and then the sign for big- In the Ojibway lan-
guage the spoken form is Kih t ci-mani too , big-spirit , and the Ojibway makes first the
sign for big and then the sign for spirit . To one familiar with Indian languages, simi-
lar corroborating turns of phrasing occur frequently in the sign language. The sign us-
ers witnessed by the early white man not only possessed a vocabulary of perhaps more
than a thousand signs, but these were superimposed on a spoken language no less developed
than the beauteous and bounteous Greek.
Compound Sign For God As Used
By The Kiowa: Medicine-Big -
Compound Sign For God As Used
By The Ojibway: Big- Spirit .
Certain Signs Exceed In Nicety Spoken Language
Let us consider the sign for house and its modification for tipl ■ As we shall
see on the following page, this sign is a combination of substitution of the indexes for
the poles which form the profile of the house plus the principle of characteristic out-
line for a whole. When the tips of the indexes are not crossed, house in general is re-
presented; when the tips of the indexes are crossed, tipl is represented, indicating the
tip! construction in which the poles stick out at the top. Here, in sign language, a
clever difference in the adjustment of the tips of the fingers (and we could show precise-
ly such instances in Chinese writing) changes the meaning of the word, while in spoken
language the same change has to be effected by replacement by an entirely different word,
or by cumbersome affixing or compounding. For the sign for tip! see the illustration
Tipi. Cross tips of extended indexes, holding
indexes in inverted V-shape to substitute them
for the poles at edges of profile of tipi.
Posed by Gray Wolf (Bob Hofsinde).
Photograph, Courtesy of Gray Wolf •
Comparison Of The American Indian Sign Language With The
Deaf -Mute Sign Language Of The Whites
Two systems of sign talk, non-alphabetic and alphabetic, have been invented
for and introduced among the Caucasian, and other, deaf, and mute, and those having a
combination of these handicaps. There are two-handed and one-handed alphabetic systems.
In actual practice deaf-mutes largely employ the alphabetic system, with frequent short-
cuts of non-alphe.betic signs. For instance, one points at self for "I", but spells out
with the fingers " sm-p-p-o-s-e" - just as the Japanese form of Chinese writing uses non-
syllabic characters alone for the commonest words, but accompanies them by syllabic char-
acters for less common words - a remarkable parallel-
New Analysis Of The Signs Is Here Presented
The two fundamental component factors in the building up of the American In-
dian sign language are: 1. indication by gesturing at, or painting. 2. representation
■by substitution or by mimicking the action or state of, that which is designated. These
factors work out to appear as the following twenty elements which constitute the signs,
some signs being analyzed to contain two, three, or more, elements.
I. gesturing At. The element of simply pointing at or gesturing at is effici-
ent for designating those objects or abstractions which everywhere accompany the individ-
ual- By this method are designated: 1. cardinal directions and regions; 2- the person-
al and demonstrative pronouns, subjective, objective, indirective, possessive (for dem-
onstratives as adverbs of place, see 19 below); 3. the body parts of one's own body; 4.
colors of almost universal occurrence in nature, such as black and white.
1. Cardinal Directions
Up. Point Index Upward.
H H 15.
Down . Point Index
Personal And Demonstrative Pronouns
I_, me, my .
Point Index At
Chest. H I 1.
Me. 2nd element
in: tell me!
Place hand palm
up , tip of hand
forward, at chin,
then jerk hand
backward. H T 11.
You , your .
Point index at
real or imagin-
ary. H T 5.
You , 2nd element
in: I tell you.
Place hand palm
up, tip of hand
jerk hand for-
ward. H I 12.
He , him , his , visible.
_Point in backhanded
manner toward 3rd per-
son. H H 20, H H 22.
He, etc. , invisible.
Gesture in backhanded
manner toward rear.
H H 22.
3. Body Parts
This , here , that , there .
Point index at object or
locality. H P 17,
H P 18.
jSar. Point at ear. H E 1. But to heal
is action mimicking: hold cupped hand
behind ear. 30
Point at throat.
4. Certain Colors
Black. Point at
eyebrows, at hair,
or at some black
object near one.
White . Point at some
whi te object near
one (hardly at one's
own teeth, for that
would be misunderstood).
II. gesturing At Localit y O f Occurrence . Gesturing at, or other indications
of, the place of occurrence replaces indication of the object or abstraction. This is
contained, e. g. , as the first element in the sign to think, thought.
To thinfr , thought . Gesture at heart, and then
bring hand forward, to gesture thought coming forth from
the heart. Gesturing at locality of occurrence plus ac-
III. Painting . The various spoken languages of the sign talkers call this ele-
ment "painting." We would call it outlining. One outlines the figure of an object by
tracing it with the hand or hands in mid-air.
_ --XX ■
Wheel , wagon . Paint
vertical circle with index.
By modifying the tracing
of circles, several wheels
and the going or
coming of a wheeled
vehicle is indicated.
Vaul t . sunrise ,
sunset , noon .
Hold spread thumb
and index down
toward left and
moving toward right,
first up and then down.
H S 55.
Corral . Bring both open
hands together and
paint away from self
horizontal outline of a
corral, each hand
IV. Substitution . In substitution a body part of the sign user, most common-
ly a finger or manual part, and its posture, is made to represent, i.e., to substitute
for, the object or abstraction. Sometimes the substitution is of the outline of object.
Man . Elevate index
with back forward in
front of face. Ill 3.
Beard . Hang hand
under chin with
Coin . Make ring
with thumb and
index. H D 27.
Half coin , fifty cent
piece - Make ring with
thumb and index of
left hand. Lay right
index across ring
so as to divide. Also
means half of any
Big . Curve the thumb
SJs^ and fingers of
*T\y both hands as if
TjL representing the
<^-** \ surface of an
^•-^ \ imaginary sizeable
V- Action Mimicry . The sign user's hand or body part is made to mimic or imi-
tate the action or motion, actual or desired, of an object or abstraction.
To go, go awav !
To shoo away.
palm turned to
To come , come!
chest. H C 22.
To twinkle ,,
by releasing it
from end of
To lighten .
and with band
zigzag path of
VI . Instrument Action Mimicry ,
gets across the idea of the instrument.
Awl . Bore right
index into left
The mimicking of the action of an instrument
Saw . Mimic the
(To Be Continued In The August Issue)
MONTANA INDIAN GIRL WTN3 ESSAY PRIZE
By Mrs. Julia. Schutz, Gros Ventre State Chairman Indier Welfare,
General Federation of Women's Clubs of Montana-
We are all proud of Leona Cochran,
a Gros Ventre girl who is a seventh-grade
student at the Harlem, Montana, public school.
She was the winner of the prize offered by
the Montana Association for the Prevention
of Tuberculosis of the General Federation
of Women's Clubs for the best essay on tu-
berculosis and its prevention.
Five prizes were offered among
the seven Montana Indian reservations.
Leona not only won the prize for Fort Bel-
knap, but also the grand prize of $10-00
given by the National President of the Gen-
eral Federation of Women's Clubs, Mrs- Ro-
berta Campbell Lawson.
WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS
Recent visitors to the Washington Office* have included
the following: Superintendent Earl Woolridge of Rocky Boy's Agency
in Montana; L. C. Lippert, Superintendent of the Standing Rock
Agency in North Dakota; and A. C. Monahan, Regional Coordinator for
Also included in the Washington Office visitors were the
Standing Rock delegation and the Kiowa Delegation. Members of the
Standing Rock delegation were: Willis Mountain, Percy Tibbeto,
J. R. Harmon, Mrs. Josepine Kelly, Mrs. Mary Long Chase and Mary M.
Wounds. Members of the Kiowa delegation were: M. M. Bedoka (Caddo),
Delos K. Lonewolf and son (Kiowa), and Felix Koweno (Comanche).
Other visitors were: Miss Mabel Morrow, Senior Instruc-
tor of Home Economics from Sequoyah Training School in Tahlequah,
Oklahoma; Mr. J. Sidney Rood, Acting General Reindeer Supervisor
from Nome, Alaska; Delos Lonewolf, Kiowa, and Felix Kowena, Comanche,
from the Kiowa Agency in Oklahoma.
SOUTHWESTERN RESERVATIONS PREPARE FOR FIRE SEASON : FIBJjj TRAINING-
CAMP MJ AT FORT APACHE . ARIZONA
By Dewayne Kreager, Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID
The Fire School Occupied A Convenient Location In The Timber
As preparation for the approach of summer, and with it
the ever-present danger of forest fires, Indian CCC-ID enrollees
from five reservations in three southwestern states gathered at
the Fort Apache Reservation the latter part of April to attend the
second annual Indian Service Southwest Regional Fire Training Camp
The camp was located in the timber on a bluff overlooking
the North Fork of the White River, some twelve miles north of the
agency. Work of the school consisted of instruction and practical
demonstrations of radio and telephone communication, fire detec-
tion, fire suppression, fire-camp operation, fire damage estima-
tion, care and handling of tools and equipment, packing, determina-
tion of fire causes, safety, sanitation and first aid. Careful
attention was given to the organizational set-up of the Regional
Fire Control Plan, which insures cooperation from outside jurisdic-
tions in the event that one reservation is confronted with a seri-
ous fire which it cannot control through its own resources alone.
While the fire school was still in progress, a small fire
broke out near the camp, providing the opportunity for the men to
put into practical use many things which they had learned.
In addition to the instruction features, Mr. Silas 0.
Davis, Senior Forest Ranger in charge of fire control on the Fort
Apache Reservation, who had charge of the school, prepared two hy-
pothetical fire problems to serve as practical contests, one for
the enrollees and one for instructors. Robert Gatewood, Indian en-
rollee from the Fort Apache Reservation, won a hunting knife for the
best solution in the enrollee problem, scoring twenty-nine out of a
possible thirty-two points. John W. Allan, Forest Supervisor for
San Carlos won a jackknife for the best solution in the contest for
The results of such training in the past has greatly re-
duced the tremendous losses by forest fires, and it is felt that
the instruction the men have received at this fire school will prove
of untold value in protecting, preserving and developing the value-
able timber areas on their reservations.
Indian Enrollees And Part Of Fire Camp Personnel
Assembled In Lecture Tent
ZUgl THE CENTER
Excerpted, With Permission of J. J. Augustin, The Publisher, From
"First Penthouse Dwellers Of America", by Dr. Euth M. Under hi 11.
' ■■■■ ■ ■ • ■
..... .... . ■■
One drives " through modern streets among houses
no longer terraced.
Long ago, when the disc of earth was new and quivering,
the people of the underworld climbed up to it, mounting a pine, a
spruce, a pinyon and a cottonwood.
...At every pause they sang all their sacred songs, which
are the very ones that are sung now when the dancers stamp in the
plaza, waving spruce boughs and rattles and masked in turquoise and
yellow and white. Thus they came up through sulphur-smell-inside-
the-world, soot-inside-the-world, fog-inside-the-world, until they
stood forth into the daylight of their Sun Father.
Then they went searching for the center of the earth disc.
They found it and they built a town which they called Itiwana and
the whites called Zuni.
Earth Center has moved a little since the Spaniards first
found it, and it has shrunk. In 1540, there were six small towns
spread through a pleasant valley with Halona, the central one, al-
most where Zuni is now. Here was no mountain fortress like those
in which the Hopi held out against their enemies. The villagers,
when they had to, fled to their sacred mountain, Towalayane, and
sometimes stayed aloft for years, but they always came back to the
terraced houses among the cornfields. Bach village held two hundred
people or more, so the chroniclers say, in the houses banked up four
and five stories high ...
Such were the Zuni villages, but far different was the
picture of them which formed in Spanish minds. When rumors of large
and powerful villages to the north penetrated down through the moun-
tains to Mexico, the treasure of the Aztecs had long ago been thrown
into the melting pot. Those who had missed their share of it were
straining and jumping for another chance and, almost out of thin
air, they concocted the myth of the Seven Cities of Cibola.
Those who finally found those seven cities, of which our
Zuni is now the only one left, were a Spanish priest and a Negro,
Esteban, hero of one of the most grotesque and fantastic series of
adventures in all history. The next year came Coronado, with his
train of conquistadores, in brass helmets and leather hauberks.
. • -Little Hawikuh was the goal of the invading army and
that army was hungry. "We could not obtain anything to eat," re-
ported one of the soldiers, "unless we captured it.... so it was
necessary to attack and kill some of them."
It was a pathetic battle. The Zuni threw stones from
their walls at the glittering helmet of Coronado and hurt him so that
his face was sore afterward. Four or five Spaniards had arrow
wounds and some horses were killed. Then the Indians moved out of
their town and took refuge on the sacred mountain whither they must
flee from time to time through the three centuries to come. The
hungry Spaniards moved in . . .A geographic accident prevented the
Zunis 1 maintaining the wild independence of Hopi . They were not
far enough away and they were not on a mesa. Inward independence
was quite another matter- Zuni raised wheat and sheep and went
to church, and Zuni maintained its individuality so completely
that it is even today the focus of pueblo life: the earth center.
The rebellion came in 1680 and the Zuni joined it. Tradi-
tion says that they even swung the Hopi into line, for before this
the Peaceful had prevented disturbance because they preferred their
own quiet methods. Tradition says also that there was one Zuni
priest who was not killed. True, he disappeared, but there are
lasting tales that, since he was a good man of whom they were really
fond, the Zuni offered to spare his life if he would dress like them
and be adopted into the tribe. He accepted. The Zuni moved out of
all their towns as they did when danger threatened and took refuge
on holy Towayalane. Perhaps the priest was with them and perhaps
he saved the holy images and the church vessels. At least when the
Spaniards came back twelve years later, they found the people still
on the mountain but preserving those sacred things which "rejoiced
the conquerors as evidence of their earlier Christian state."
The Spaniards ' return marks the beginning of modern Zuni .
Wild Apache had destroyed one. of their villages. The inhabitants
of all five others had huddled for twelve years on their nearby
mountain afraid to come down and meet the punishment awaiting them.
When a sadder and wiser Spain offered peace, few went beck to the
old homes. They gathered in Halona, the Earth Center, which grew
until it sheltered them all, with four new villages among the fields
for summer residence. They appointed a secular governor as Spanish
decree demanded, and he is still there to perform the extraneous
business of dealing with the whites. They built a church. Let no
one think however, that the art, the ceremonies, or the life of Zuni
has paled. The priests of the sun and the rain still meet to rule
Zuni went through some bad years while Spain declined and
the new republic of Mexico struggled hopelessly with wild Navajo
and Apache. No one helped the little pueblo in her own struggles
and she did what she could. At one time the Zuni had acquired a
hundred Navajo captives and feeding them grew expensive, so they
put them in the plaza, with two Zuni warriors at each corner, and
told them to escape if they could. None did.
In 1848 Mexico was rather forcibly persuaded to give up
a large stretch of her northern country to the United States which
wished to build a railroad. The country included Zuni. In 1877 a
reservation was set aside for these "honest and virtuous people"
who were such a relief after the turbulent nomads. It took a long
time for the declining population to take an upward turn, but by
1933 it was 2,021, with an increase of 82 since 1910. The four
outside farming villages, which had been only camps, began to grow
now that danger was over. If they and the population go on increas-
ing, there may some day actually be seven cities of Cibola.
There are day schools at two of them already and a high
school at Zuni proper. Every child in Zuni speaks English now and
no one stays out of school, say the reports, any more than in a
white community. A few miles from the town stand a hospital and a
sub-agency, and there are two churches, a Catholic and a Protestant,
to replace the ruined one. That one the Zuni will neither repair
The town of Zuni still lives, with the cornfields waving
up to the very doors of the neat screened houses, with flowers in
the dooryard, oilcloth and kitchen cabinets within. Zuni makes com-
petent use of mowing machines and canning equipment. Its girls at-
tend 4-H clubs; its boys can drive automobiles. Meantime, the an-
cient system of life goes on, the great ceremonies usher the year
on its course.
The dances go on. If the inner tubes of automobile tires
sometimes repla.ce earth reddened buckskin, if Germantown yarn is
substituted for strings of turquoise, does that mean that the essence
of the ceremony has suffered? These things may in time become sacred
as anything can that is used by a living religion. The wistful ques-
tion of the white observer is whether this beautiful group unison,
this manifold emotional satisfaction, is bound up by the mandate of
history with the growing of corn by hand. Can none of it be brought
over into a world of ploughs and machines and offices? How could
the wisest Zuni do it? How could the wisest white, man help him?
A map of the Pueblos, of Arizona and New Mexico, would
not now show Zuni at the center. Many have been the viscissitudes
attacking this group of ancient Indian villages, the most highly
civilized within the boundaries of the United States. Those viscis-
situdes, from the early prehistoric times which are only guessed
at down through the march of the armored Spaniards to the soil ero-
sion problems of the present day, form the subject of First Pent -
house Dwellers Of America , the story of the Pueblos.
The book presents vividly for the average reader, the
fascinating archaeological data which are growing, year by year,
into a coherent picture. Where did the Pueblo Indians come from?
How long have they been there? What was happening in that desert,
which was once well-watered country, in the years when the Britons
lived in wattled huts and the birth of Columbus was centuries ahead.?
Students of primitive man are only beginning to realize how many
different groups must have come into America in the days anywhere
from ten to twenty thousand years ago and they look past the
pueblos back to these earliest immigrants, then to new invasions
and to a civilization so firmly knit that it persists to the pres-
From a chapter on the "First Immigrants" the book passes
to "The Peaceful Hopi M ; their long and surprising history, which
includes the use of coal; their dauntless struggle with the Span-
iards who reached their country long before the Pilgrims landed on
Plymouth Rock and their slow change to the mastery of modern craft
and trade. "Zuni* the Center," comes next with its mixture of
gorgeous ancient ceremony and practical up-to-date farming. "The •
Warriors of Keres" treats that interesting and aloof group of vil-
lages headed by Santo Domingo, most conservative of all Indian
A glimpse at the wild events of Spanish history will ex-
plain much of the grim secrecy with which the Keres guard their
sacred traditions. Similar events befell the Catholic Tewa but
they, in the rich valley of the Rio Grande, found aloofness impos-
sible. The interesting steps in the history of these towns, po
outwardly Spanish, so inherently Indian, throw light on the Rio
Grande proolems of the present day. Last, on the very border of
Pueblo land, stands Taos by the Buffalo Country. Half Plains, half
Pueblo, with its blanketed figures, beak-nosed between their braided
hair, Taos has traditions from the land of the buffalo and the tipi
as well as from that of corn and stone buildings.
How are the practices and beliefs, so firmly held to by
all these varied groups, to be used as building foundation for the
new practices that must come? It is this question which is con-
stantly posed as the history of each village unrolls before our eyes
showing, through the pressure of events, some constant character in
each. The Pueblos, as any worker among Indians knows, have never
stood still. They have changed and learned for centuries, adapting
each new bit of knowledge to the life which they found good. Will
the latest change be too rapid for them to accept and still keep
their vitality? This is a problem for other Indian areas as well.
A vivid and sympathetic history such as that found in First Pent -
house Dwellers Of Ameri ca should help with the understanding of it-
INDIANS IN THE NEWS
APACHES . ONCE TERRORS OF WEST . NOW WIN BATTLE FOR EXISTENCE
Tribe Which Was Sent to Florida "Prison" For Rebellion
Against United States Sets a Good Record For Making
a Living on New Mexico Reservation
By Paul I. Wellman
(From The Kansas City Star , Kansas City, Missouri, April 21, 1938.)
The hand of Indians which once terrorized the entire
Southwest, successfully fought against 5,000 United States sol-
diers, and surrendered only when the governments of Mexico and the
United States pooled their resources against it, is making a record
of civilized progress, which is almost as surprising as its war
On the White Tail division of the Mescalero Agency, are
perhaps ninety survivors of the Chiricahua Apaches, led by Geron-
imo in the last great Indian rebellion of the Southwest. Among
them are some of the old warriors who took part in the actual
fighting, but many of them are descendants of the original group.
Whatever their connection, they have made an exceptional record
since being moved to this reservation from Fort Sill, Oklahoma in
The record of the Geronimo band was a sorrowful one for
a time. After the Apache wars, in which an estimated 2,000 white
persons and Mexicans lost their lives, the Indians numbering only
a few score were induced by Captain Gatewood to surrender in 1386
to Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles. They were then shipped to
Fort Marion, Florida, where they were held as prisoners of war.
Later they were moved to Alabama., and finally to Fort Sill, where
they were still held as prisoners of war.
The efforts of Dr. Henry Roe Cloud, now of Wichita,
Kansas, and formerly head of the Haskell Indian Institute at Law-
rence, Kansas, brought about their release. Dr. Roe Cloud, then
a young Winnebago Indian student at Yale, discovered, in reading
the laws of the United States, that it is not lawful to "work a
corruption of blood." In other words, children cannot be punished
for the crimes of their parents. He brought to the attention of
the Supreme Court the fact that there were third end even fourth
generation Apache children, who never had "been on the warpath, being
held as "prisoners of war" by the government at Fort Sill. As a
result, the Indians were ordered freed and permitted to go to the
reservation in New Mexico, where their kinfolk, the Me9calero
The Indians of that agency were among the first to adopt
the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act. JS. R. McCray is
superintendent of the agency, and under his administration nearly
all offices are held by Indians. George A. Day, chief clerk and
Nathan J. Head, head of the logging operations, are both Indians.
There are at present 183 families of Indians, totaling
760 persons, on this reservation which contains nearly 475,000
acres of beautiful timbered mountain land and small fertile valleys .
Surprisingly, the Apaches have shown a disposition to
work, and they have made some real progress economically. Their
chief income so far is from live stock. Last year they sold 2,054
cattle, and their entire receipts from all live stock sources, in-
cluding wool and mohair, was $105,000. They own 6,000 purebred
cattle, 8,000 sheep, 4,000 goats and many horses.
A second source of income is logging of the forests which
brought in an income of around $40,000 last year.
Many of the Indians are farmers, and the total receipts
from farm products last year was nearly $30,000.
Under the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act,
the tribe has borrowed $240,000 from the government, and a new
home is being constructed for every family on the reservation. The
lumber for these homes is obtained in trade for logs cut and hauled
for the reservation. As a result, houses which would normally cost
$2,500 are being built by the Apaches for around $1,200 apiece.
Incidentally the Mescalero Apaches, which includes Geron-
imo's old tribe, are better off economically than many white fami-
lies. With the exception of the old, unprogressive "rationers" who
are kept by themselves and allowed to live under government bounty,
the Indians on the reservation had an income last year averaging
$1,050 apiece, from the combined profits of their products. The
reservation is rich in natural resources, and coal, copper and per-
haps oil may be added to their income-producing factors in the
( Note : "Indians At Work" will print, from time to time,
interesting excerpts from local newspaper accounts of events in-
NAVAJO FOREST FIRE CONTROL SCHOOL HE LD AT
FORT DEFIANCE, ARIZONA , MAY 2-6 .
By DeWayne Kreager, Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID
Enrollees Attending The Navajo
Fire Control School.
There are 600,000
acres of commercial- type
timber on the Navajo and
more than a million acres
of woodland and crush. Fire
is of vital importance to
Navajo economy. At the an-
nual fire control school,
young Navajos learn effec-
tive methods for preventing
and dealing with fires.
at the left shows the nine-
teen Navajo enrollees who
attended this year's schodl.
Fire suppression for the Navajo is under the general su-
pervision of Mr. H. E. Holman, Director of Land Use. In immediate
charge of the 1938 fire school was L. R. Kenefick, Assistant Forest-
er, assisted hy L. F. Hamilton, Assistant Forester, Bob Matson, Jun-
ior Range Examiner, Carl Bartells, Telephone Foreman, and others of
the Navajo field personnel. Claude C. Cornwall, Regional Camp Su-
pervisor, and DeWayne Kreager, Camp Supervisor from the Phoenix Of-
fice assisted in the instruction work.
All of the nineteen Navajo Indians attending the school
were CCC-ID enrollees, specially selected for their aptitude in for-
est fire control work. This fire control school provides an excel-
lent example of off-the-job enrollee training that later proves its
practical use in values than can be reckoned in thousands of dol-
lars of decreased forest losses through fire.
The two Apache babies pictured on the cover live at the
Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona.
N0TL3 r*OM WtCKLY PROGRESS REPORTS OF
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS ~ INDIAN DIVISION
_Camp_ Ground Development At Salem
Indian School ( Oregon ) All the en-
rollees at the Chemawa Camp attended
the first-aid class. They learned
how to use a lathe in the proper man-
ner, the use of wood turning tools,
the use of a buck saw, the uses of
mitre and the advantages of wood
filler. James L. Shawver , Dairyman .
Varied Activities At Quapaw In -
dian Agency ( Oklahoma ) The enrollee
and recreational programs have been
started here and considerable inter-
est has been displayed on the part
of the personnel and the enrollees.
A great interest has also been shown
by the families of the various com-
We have started our First-Aid
and Safety program with a total en-
rollment of 65 men from the three
groups. The First-Aid classes and
Safety meetings are being divided
into three separate enrollments for
the first half of the month; each
group meeting once a week.
Included in our recreational
program has been the organization
of three baseball t^ams which will
form an inter-project league. We
shall form one all-star team from
the three project teams and hope to
have a good baseball club. Frank
Landscaping Work At Five Civil -
ized Tribes ( Oklahoma ) The men have
been doing a great deal of work and
have made a fine showing this week.
The dump trucks have been kept very
busy with hauling topsoil and sever-
al loads have been hauled. Some of
the men have been burning brush and
other similar jobs. Floyd B. Cham-
We have recently completed all
of the concrete work on the truck
sheds, the cesspool and a grease rack-
Other work that kept the boys busy
was the grading up and around the of-
ficers ' quarters and supply room.
The plumbing work has also been prac-
tically completed, leaving but lit-
tle of this type of work yet to be
done. Charles Kilgore , Clerk .
Blister Rust Control At Keshena
( Wisconsin ) Most of the enrollees
are employed on the white pine blis-
ter rust project. New infection a-
reas are being treated every day to
make everyone realize the importance
of this work. The crews are really
covering ground at a rapid rate be-
cause the bushes are easily sighted
at this season of the year.
The fire presuppression crew
is working on the grounds around the
nursery buildings and is doing a real
good job. Walter Ridlington , Proj -
Camp Maintenance At Naval o
(Chin Lee - Arizona ) During the past
week much was accomplished toward
the improvement of the camp. New
locks and screen doors were put on
the barracks for the purpose of
greater camp protection.
Now that we are having some
nice weather, Mr. Howard and his
kitchen force are doing much toward
better sanitation in the mess hall.
William A. Baultt, Clerk.
Truck Trail Maintenance At Choc -
taw-Chickasaw Sanatorium ( Oklahoma )
The work on the truck trail mainte-
nance on Buffalo Mountain has been
going along very nicely. The work
consisted of filling in washes, cuts,
opening up of ditches and drains and
This truck trail was beginning
to get in bad condition due to heavy
rainfall which caused considerable
washing and cutting up of the trail.
This caused the filling up of ditches
in places and the stoppage of culvert
drains. We believe, however, that
within the course of a short time
we will have this trail in very good
condition. Tony Winlock , Leader ,
Shelter belt Work At Pine Ridge
( South Dakota ) When this project was
completed there were 78, COO trees
planted and there are still a few
hundred to be planted at the cot-
tages . There were 10 acres to be
planted. Some of these trees came
from the nursery at Vermillion in
South Dakota and another group of
trees came from the nursery at Rapid
City in South Dakota. James Iron
Cloud , Group Foreman .
Recently we found a young or-
phan buffalo but could not find its
mother . So we took her over to the
American Day School at Allen where
they offered to feed it and care for
it for about three weeks, at which
time we would turn it out with the
rest of the herd. Paul Valandry ,
Camp Attendant .
Truck Trail Construction At
Great Lakes ( Wisconsin ) Construc-
tion on the Lake Shore Drive Truck
Trail, Project #202 D 144, has again
been resumed. The U. S. Forest Serv-
ice is furnishing the heavy equipment
which consists of one fresno and two
bulldozers for' this construction work-
The crews have been clearing the
right-of-way, stumping Dy dynamiting
and making ditch lines for drainage.-
The Grants Creek Bridge, Project
#104 D 392 has also been resumed. A
side camp with crew of 17 men have
been started for this project. This
bridge will have a 12-foot span, with
an all timber construction. It is
believed that this bridge will be
completed before July. Louis Chingwa,
Assistant Leader .
Bridge Maintenance At Col vi lie
( Washington ) The work of rebuilding
bridges is coming along rapidly. One
bridge is finished and another is
nearly completed- Due to the unusual-
ly high waters on the reservation
this year, several bridges went out
and some have been endangered. This
necessitated extensive rebuilding
and repair work.
With the cooperation of Ferry
County, we are getting our trails
back into good condition. The Ferry
County is supplying the gasoline for
the maintenance work. William J.
Tree Planting At Standing Rock
( North Dakota ) We planted Cotton-
woods, Cherry trees, Caragana, Choke
Cherry trees 'and a few wild trees
along the dams in the agency district.
P. Yellow Hammer .
Our tree planting project has
been completed and we are hoping
they will grow as the soil is very
sandy and there are no signs of
Erosion Control At Mission (Cal-
ifornia) The crew that is working
on erosion control has completed
building the rock and wire check
dam on Gardner Creek. This dam was
built in the vicinity of the check
dams which were constructed last
fall and which have been filled with
sediment resulting from the winter
rains. In the same locality, about
8,000 of the recent shipment of Honey
Locust trees were heeled in near the
creek so that they may be planted
in desirable places this coming fall.
About 2,800 Desert Willows were also
At the permanent dam on Manzan-
ita Creek, excavation for the footing
has been completed. One large boul-
der which was not intact was shot
out. The pouring of concrete will
be started as soon as the loose
rock is cleaned out. W. A. Grin -
Recreational Activities At Warm
Springs ( Oregon ) Baseball has been
the main event in camp recreational
activities. A meeting has been pro-
posed to organize the players and
to work out a schedule for the com-
A ball game between the Agency
Camp and the Old Mill Camp is sched-
uled for the near future. Those
showing the best playing ability in
this game will be chosen for the
reservation's "first string." In
practice, all the boys show promis-
ing material, but the judges at this
game will determine who's who in
baseball. Glen Nash .
Truck Trail Maintenance At Mes -
calero ( New Mexico ) The Auto Patrol
has continued its maintenance work
with good progress. All truck trails
on the reservation are in fine shape
because of the additional maintenance
work and grading being done from time
to time. Perfecto Garcia -
Activities . At Yakima ( Washing -
ton ) We had some excitement in camp
over the week-end. It was a fire
that was reported by one of our look-
outs and a small crew was sent out .
The crew had the fire under control
Tennis and horseshoes have
proved to be very popular among many
of the boys in camp. Every evening
tennis matches and horseshoe games
are played, much to the delight of
the spectators as well as to the
players themselves . Albert C. Sever -
son , Leader .
Fence Boundary Construction At
Pipestone ( Minnesota ) Progress was
slow this week on the fence boundary
project due to a rocky formation
several inches under the surface soil
which made the digging of post holes
very difficult. Indications are that
the balance of the digging of post
holes will move along at a more rap-
id rate in the future.
The men are hauling soil and
leveling and widening the bottom of
the ditch for a distance of about
250 feet above the weir on the rip-
rap rock project. After the correct
slope is obtained for the bottom of
the ditch, the sides will be graded
off with a one to three-feet slope.
This will require a team of horses
to help the enrollees with the grad-
ing of the ditch and the team will
be furnished by the Pipestone School.
This will help to keep down the ex-
pense against this project.
The tree planting project here
showed good progress because of the
favorable weather. G. R. Brown.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES
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